Bandolim In contemporary tradition of choro performance the bandolim is still an essential solo voice, many people seem to identify choro with this fascinating instrument that was adapted and modified from the European mandolin by Brasil luthiers. Jacob Bittencourt (aka Jacó do Bandolim) helped shaping the instrument most commonly used, the eight string bandolim consisting of 4 pairs of strings that are tuned like a violin according to the following order: (from high to low) first pair E, second pair A, third pair D and fourth pair G. However, in recent years musicians like Hamilton de Holanda have experimented with a 10-string bandolim shaped with 5 pairs of strings. The fith pairs of strings are usually tuned in the key of (low) C, but a B-flat tuning of the pairs also appears. The ten-stringed bandolim gives the performer a whole new variety of harmonic and melodic possibilities.