PandeiroThe pandeiro is a Brazilian single-head membranophone. It is used in a variety of contexts, from the baterias (percussion sections) for samba schools and capoeira to a broad range of Brazilian popular/commercial music genres in which it is employed as an auxiliary percussion instrument.

The nylon head of this pandeiro is mounted on a rigid metal flesh hoop whose diameter is greater than that of the rim of the shell it covers. The drum's shallow cylindrical wooden shell has six equally-distanced metal piers attached to its sidewall. The tensioning of the drumhead is accomplished by placing a metal tension collar on top of the flesh hoop and connecting it to the shell with metal hooks the straight ends of which are threaded and run through the piers on the shell. Nuts are threaded onto the ends of the hooks, and when tightened against the piers serve to pull down the tension collar. This in turn increases the tension of the area of the drumhead that is covering the opening of the shell. Five elongated oval-shaped slots are made in the circumference of the drum shell each to house a pair of metal cymbals held loosely in place by a vertical pin.

‘Pandeiro’ is the Portuguese word for ‘tambourine,’ and Portugal is most likely from where the instrument was introduced to Brazil. When this introduction took place is not known, but in all likelihood it took place during colonial times, perhaps as early as the 18th century.